Exact Algorithms and Lowerbounds for Multiagent Path Finding: Power of Treelike Topology
Authors
Year
2024
Published
Proceedings of the 38th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Menlo Park: AAAI Press, 2024. p. 17380-17388. ISSN 2159-5399.
Type
Proceedings paper
Departments
Annotation
In the Multiagent Path Finding (MAPF for short) problem, we focus on efficiently finding non-colliding paths for a set of k agents on a given graph G, where each agent seeks a path from its source vertex to a target. An important measure of the quality of the solution is the length of the proposed schedule l, that is, the length of a longest path (including the waiting time). In this work, we propose a systematic study under the parameterized complexity framework. The hardness results we provide align with many heuristics used for this problem, whose running time could potentially be improved based on our Fixed-Parameter Tractability (FPT) results. We show that MAPF is W[1]-hard with respect to k (even if k is combined with the maximum degree of the input graph). The problem remains NP-hard in planar graphs even if the maximum degree and the makespan l are fixed constants. On the positive side, we show an FPT algorithm for k+l. As we continue, the structure of G comes into play. We give an FPT algorithm for parameter k plus the diameter of the graph G. The MAPF problem is W[1]-hard for cliquewidth of G plus l while it is FPT for treewidth of G plus l.
Recontamination helps a lot to hunt a rabbit
Authors
Dissaux, T.; Fioravantes, F.; Gahlawat, H.; Nisse, N.
Year
2023
Published
Proceedings of the 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science. Dagstuhl: Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, 2023. p. 591-604. vol. 272. ISSN 1868-8969. ISBN 978-3-95977-292-1.
Type
Proceedings paper
Departments
Annotation
The \textsc{Hunters and Rabbit} game is played on a graph $G$ where the Hunter player shoots at $k$ vertices in every round while the Rabbit player occupies an unknown vertex and, if it is not shot, must move to a neighbouring vertex after each round. The Rabbit player wins if it can ensure that its position is never shot. The Hunter player wins otherwise. The hunter number $h(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the minimum integer $k$ such that the Hunter player has a winning strategy (i.e., allowing him to win whatever be the strategy of the Rabbit player). This game has been studied in several graph classes, in particular in bipartite graphs (grids, trees, hypercubes...), but the computational complexity of computing $h(G)$ remains open in general graphs and even in more restricted graph classes such as trees. To progress further in this study, we propose a notion of monotonicity (a well-studied and useful property in classical pursuit-evasion games such as Graph Searching games) for the \textsc{Hunters and Rabbit} game imposing that, roughly, a vertex that has already been shot ``must not host the rabbit anymore''. This allows us to obtain new results in various graph classes.
More precisely, let the monotone hunter number $mh(G)$ of a graph $G$ be the minimum integer $k$ such that the Hunter player has a monotone winning strategy. We show that $pw(G) \leq mh(G) \leq pw(G)+1$ for any graph $G$ with pathwidth $pw(G)$, which implies that computing $mh(G)$, or even approximating $mh(G)$ up to an additive constant, is \textsf{NP}-hard. Then, we show that $mh(G)$ can be computed in polynomial time in split graphs, interval graphs, cographs and trees. These results go through structural characterisations which allow us to relate the monotone hunter number with the pathwidth in some of these graph classes. In all cases, this allows us to specify the hunter number or to show that there may be an arbitrary gap between $h$ and $mh$, i.e., that monotonicity does not help. In particular, we show that, for every $k\geq 3$, there exists a tree $T$ with $h(T)=2$ and $mh(T)=k$. We conclude by proving that computing $h$ (resp., $mh$) is FPT~parameterised by the minimum size of a vertex cover.