PhDr. Ing. Tomáš Evan, Ph.D.

Publikace

Influence of women’s workforce participation and pensions on total fertility rate: a theoretical and econometric study

Rok
2018
Publikováno
Euroasian Economic Review. 2018, 8(1), 51-72. ISSN 2147-429X.
Typ
Článek
Anotace
This paper explores the influence of the two historical and arguably most important correlates of fertility, i.e. female labor participation and pensions. We confirm the long-established negative impact of government provided pensions and all other welfare state social policies except pro-family ones on fertility between 1990 and 2013 in OECD countries. We also claim the reports about positive correlation between female labor participation and fertility, which caused a recent upsurge in research, to be spurious. Our results show a statistically insignificant relationship as a result of pro-family policies designed to offset the negative impact of female labor participation. We conclude that current societies in developed countries continue to have an unsustainable level of reproduction to an extent allowing depopulation, largely due to high and ever increasing female labor participation and a high level of social expenditure, particularly on pensions. We suggest an alternative set of pro-family and pro-natality policies and a decrease in social expenditure as a possible solution.

Some effects of Intellectual property protection on national economies: theoretical and econometric study

Autoři
Evan, T.; Vozárová, P.; Bolotov, I.
Rok
2018
Publikováno
Prague Economic Papers. 2018, 27(1), 73-91. ISSN 1210-0455.
Typ
Článek
Anotace
This paper aims to theoretically derive and afterwards econometrically assess the impact of intellectual property protection (IPP) on national economies. The authors’ main hypothesis is that by creating a form of non-market protection, IPP limits free competition and has no positive effects on national economies and the world economy in general. The hypothesis is tested through estimation of relationship between charges for the use of intellectual property and 1) gross domestic product, 2) GDP growth, 3) unemployment, 4) exports of high-tech products, 5) FDI outflow, and 6) expenses on research and development in a panel dataset of 146 countries in years 2005–2014 based Arellano-Bond estimator for dynamic panel models. The data tells us that changes in these charges have not a significant impact on the studied indicators, which counts against claims of positive impact of IPP on economies and growth.

A non-parametric statistical test for J.R. Hicks’ induced innovation hypothesis

Autoři
Evan, T.; Bolotov, I.
Rok
2017
Publikováno
International Days of Statistics and Economics Conference Proceedings. Praha: VŠE, 2017. p. 183-194. ISBN 978-80-87990-12-4.
Typ
Stať ve sborníku
Anotace
This paper attempts to construct a simple non-parametric statistical test, a combination of a) Student’s t-test, b) Wald’s F-test and c)calculus for the induced innovation hypothesis published by J. R. Hicks in 1932: “a change in the relative prices of the factors of production is itself a spur to invention, and to invention of a particular kind directed to economizing the use of a factor which has become relatively expensive”. The test is performed on parameters estimated from a dynamicized comparatively static economic model constructed by the authors from Lancaster’s characteristics consumer behaviour theory and the neoclassical production function with a Gorman-style representative consumer and firm. Estimations are performed on a panel dataset, which comprises 154 countries for the years 1980–2015 (5544 rows) with the help of the General method of Moments (GMM). The paper contributes to the overall economic and historical causes of innovations in economies.

Analysis of dynamic relationship between corruption and foreign direct investment

Autoři
Evan, T.; Bolotov, I.
Rok
2017
Publikováno
ANTIcorruption&fraud: DETECTION&MEASUREMENT. Praha: Anglo-American University, 2017. p. 40-64. ISBN 978-80-906585-2-3.
Typ
Stať ve sborníku
Anotace
This text builds on our seminary work about the contra-intuitively weak relation between FDI and corruption. The mainstream economic thinking suggests improving transparency leads to increased FDI inflow. While economic environment without corruption is certainly value per-se, we find that given the nature of multinational corporations and FDI, it does not necessary translate to higher FDI. Multinational corporations depend on arbitrary political decisions of home as well as host governments to offset their extra costs from doing business in multiple socio-economic environments of various countries, thus somehow increased level of corruption might be an outcome of this relationship. Following our previous theoretical research as well as of others, mainly Dunning’s eclectic model, this paper verifies there is no significant dynamic relationship between corruption and foreign direct investment. We base our conclusions on the results of ordinary and generalized least squares dynamic panel models and generalized method of moments applied to data from Transparency International, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund for 154 countries and the years 1980–2015.

Chapters of European Economic History

Autoři
Rok
2014
Publikováno
Praha: Univerzita Karlova v Praze. Nakladatelství Karolinum, 2014. ISBN 978-80-246-2814-1.
Typ
Kniha
Anotace
The Chapters of European Economic History describe key moments in the economic development of the European continent and its offshoots. Starting with antiquity through the Middle Ages, it continues with the economic impact of the Age of Exploration and the Reformation. The Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions or Liberal Movements are analysed against the background of the ever increasing influence of European states on economic affairs around the globe. Europe was the continent to establish colonies in large areas of the world shaping their production, trade, and investment patterns. The author describes two waves of globalisation with the first one starting around 1830 and being centred clearly on Europe in its heyday. Everything ends for the Old Continent with the First World War. The book provides a description of the financial centre moving to the USA as Europe descended into economic misery and social radicalism. The economic base of both Nazi and Communist totalitarianism is compared briefly as well as the second wave of globalisation we are experiencing today with the first one of the 19th century. The book’s non-technical approach makes it appropriate for all those interested in the issue of economic history.

The Weak Relation between Foreign Direct Investment and Corruption: A Theoretical and Econometric Study

Autoři
Evan, T.; Bolotov, I.
Rok
2014
Publikováno
Prague Economic Papers. 2014, 23(4), 474-492. ISSN 1210-0455.
Typ
Článek
Anotace
Foreign direct investment has become an important factor of development of economies in the last decades. However, its economic nature as well as its relationship with corruption has not yet been clarified in economic literature. Following previous theoretical research, mainly Dunning’s eclectic model, this paper evaluates the econometric relationship between corruption and foreign direct investment by testing three theoretically-based hypo theses: that corruption perception indicator is a stationary variable, that the relationship between corruption and foreign direct investment stock is statistically weak and that changes in foreign direct investment stock do not Granger cause changes in corruption. The verification is based on unit root tests, panel co-integration and Granger causality models performed on data from the Transparency International, the World Bank and the Heritage Foundation and the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) for 94 countries for the years 1998–2007. The results show that there is no significant relationship between the two variables.

Přímé zahraniční investice jako nástroj nadnárodních společností

Autoři
Rok
2011
Publikováno
Globalizace a regionalizace mezi vladní politikou a tržním prostředím. Praha: Vysoká škola regionálního rozvoje., 2011. Edice VŠRR. vol. 5. ISBN 978-80-87174-12-8.
Typ
Stať ve sborníku
Anotace
Většina prací o současném mezinárodním investování v této oblasti implicitně avšak mylně předpokládá liberální ekonom ické prostředí. Snahou článku je najít teoretické důkazy, že hybnou silou současného mezinárodního investování jsou nadnárodní společnosti, které byly vytvořeny a jsou udržovány v merkantilistické tradici. Text definuje nadnárodní společnosti a ukazuje, že jejich nejdůležitějším vztahem je vztah k vládám. Text dále ukazuje, jak nadnárodní společnosti vznikly a proč si stále udržují značné podíly na světových trzích.

Některé otázky politické ekonomie nadnárodních společností

Autoři
Rok
2010
Publikováno
Acta Economica Pragensia. 2010, 2010(18(4)), 32-43. ISSN 0572-3043.
Typ
Článek
Anotace
The existence of multinational corporations is not self-evident. These corporations have costs linked with business in foreign countries compared to their domestic competitors. Therefore, in the long term, they must have particular advantages over domestic firms. These advantages are external to the market system, and in order to make them exist, a governmental activity is necessary. The government, through its intervention on the market, increases transaction costs of using the market mechanism, and through this, it also increases the influence of multinational corporations. Today, the issue is the influence of active external macroeconomic policy and the policy towards investors which uses incentives for them. The bargaining between governments and MNCs has conformed more to the market rules. However, at the same time, it has also become more institutionalised and still remains in the mercantilistic tradition.

Ekonomické učení Jana Kalvína

Autoři
Rok
2009
Publikováno
Jan Kalvín: pět set let od narození. Centrum pro ekonomiku a politiku, 2009. ISBN 978-80-86547-82-4.
Typ
Stať ve sborníku vyzvaná či oceněná

K některým otázkám politické ekonomie přímých zahraničních investic

Autoři
Rok
2007
Publikováno
Merkur Conference Proceedings. Bratislava: Ekonomická univerzita Bratislava, 2007. p. 169-181.
Typ
Stať ve sborníku

Ekonomické myšlení Jana Kalvína o majetku a solidaritě ve společnosti

Autoři
Rok
2001
Publikováno
Teologická reflexe. 2001, 01(2), 167-177. ISSN 1211-1872.
Typ
Článek

Ekonomické myšlení Jana Kalvína o úroku a lichvě

Autoři
Rok
2001
Publikováno
Politická ekonomie. 2001, 49(6), 853-868. ISSN 0032-3233.
Typ
Článek
Anotace
At the beginning of the text we took into account all relevant biblical sources that until the 16th century played role in considering the compatibility of interest with the biblical message. We also stated important authors that influenced the medieval considerations on this issue. Although the interest was officially prohibited, it was frequently used, especially in connection with loans provided to rulers by strong financial institutions. These institutions took the advantage of their position on the financial market and due to their power also enjoyed immunity to certain religious rules. Strengthening protestant movement together with the economic necessity forced respected reformators to extensive interpretation of the issue of loans. The opinions of these reformators are described. Especially the teaching of John Calvin, namely his seven rules for the effective use of interest. In conclusion, we are describing the impact of Calvin's teaching that brought with the rise of capitalism.